Balinese Script


We’ve developed a series of eLearning modules to help you get started in writing Aksara Bali.

Balinese Script eLearning

Click on the following lesson or quiz titles to launch the interactive eLearning modules.

Lessons

Quiz

References


The Characters

Vowels

Vowels (aksara suara) can be written as independent letters, or by using a variety of diacritical marks (pangangge). The independent forms are used when the vowels appear in initial position. They are described in the following list:

Aksara suara (Vowels)
Warga
(Place of articulation)
Aksara suara hresua
(Short vowels)
Name Aksara suara dirgha
(Long vowels)
Symbol Transliteration IPA Symbol Transliteration IPA
Kantya
(Guttural)
Bali A-Kara.png
A [a] A kara
Bali A-Kara Dirgha.png
Ā [ɑː]
Talawya
(Palatal)
Bali I-Kara.png
I [i] I kara
Bali I-Kara Dirgha.png
Ī [iː]
Murdhanya
(Retroflex)
Bali Rarepa.png
[ɹ̩] Ra repa
Bali Rarepa matedung.png
[ɹ̩ː]
Dantya
(Dental)
Bali 2, Lalenga.png
[l̩] La lenga
Bali Lalenga dirgha.png
[l̩ː]
Osthya
(Labial)
Bali U-Kara.png
U [u] U kara
Bali U-Kara Dirgha.png
Ū [uː]
Kanthya-talawya
(Palato-guttural)
Bali 6, E.png
E [e]; [ɛ] E kara (E)
Airsanya (Ai)
Bali Jha, Ai.png
Ai [aːi]
Kanthya-osthya
(Labio-

Consonants

Like most abugidas, each consonant (aksara wianjana) has an inherent vowel of /a/. Other vowels are indicated by using diacritics (pangangge), which can appear above, below, to the left, or to the right of the consonant.

Aksara wianjana (Consonants)
Warga
(Place of articulation)
Pancawalimukha Ardhasuara
(Semivowels)
Usma
(Fricatives)
Wisarga
Unvoiced Voiced Nasal
Kanthya
(Guttural)
Bali Ka.png

(Ka)
Ka

Bali Kaa.png, Bali Kha.png(Kha)
Ka mahaprana4
Bali Ga.png

(Ga)
Ga

Bali Gha.png

(Gha)
Ga gora

Bali Nga.png

(Nga)
Nga

Bali Ha.png

(Ha)
Ha1

Talawya
(Palatal)
Bali Ca.png

(Ca)
Ca murca

Bali Cha.png

(Cha)
Ca laca2

Bali Ja.png

(Ja)
Ja

Bali Jha, Ai.png

(Jha)
Ja jera3

Bali Nya.png

(Nya)
Nya

Bali Ya.png

(Ya)
Ya

Bali Sha.png

(Śa)
Sa saga

Murdhanya
(Retroflex)
Bali Tta.png

(Ṭa)
Ta latik

Bali Ttaa.png

(Ṭha)
Ta latik4

Bali Dda.png

(Ḍa)
Da madu m.5

Bali Ddaa.png

(Ḍha)
Da madu m.4 5 6

Bali Nna.png

(Ṇa)
Na rambat

Bali Ra.png

(Ra)
Ra

Bali Ssa.png

(Ṣa)
Sa sapa

Dantya
(Dental)
Bali Ta.png

(Ta)
Ta

Bali Tha.png

(Tha)
Ta tawa

Bali Da.png

(Da)
Da lindung

Bali Dha.png

(Dha)
Da madu

Bali Na.png

(Na)
Na kojong

Bali La.png

(La)
La

Bali Sa.png

(Sa)
Sa danti7

Osthya
(Labial)
Bali Pa.png

(Pa)
Pa

Bali 8, Pha.png

(Pha)
Pa kapal

Bali Ba.png

(Ba)
Ba

Bali Bha.png, Bali Bha 2.png(Bha)
Ba kembang8
Bali Ma.png

(Ma)
Ma

Bali Wa.png

(Wa)
Wa

^1 The consonant ha is sometimes not pronounced. For example, hujan is pronounced ujan.[1]
^2 The exact form of ca laca is unknown because only the appended (gantungan) form is left.[2] However, the independent form is included in Unicode.[3]
^3 The letter form of ja jera is exactly the same as the independent vowel airsanya.
^4 The unaspirated and the aspirated consonants share the same letter. However, the diacritic tedung can be attached to the aspirated one to differentiate the two.
^5 Da madu murdhanya
^6 Very seldom used
^7 Actually an alveolar consonant, but classified as dental by tradition
^8 The former of the two letter forms is more frequently used.

Among the 33 consonants letters above, only 18 are commonly used for writing the Balinese language:

Hanacaraka-bali.svg

Other characters, including sacred ones, are generally used for writing Sanskrit and Kawi loanwords.

 

*** With thanks to Pak Made Suatjana who originated the font for Balinese script, Pak Dewa Windhu Sancaya, Donny Harimurti and Bemby and Dendy Narendra.